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The OPTRES stakeholder consultation showed that social barriers fall into three categories:
- Opposition from local public (NIMBY)
- Lack of awareness of the benefits of renewable energy
- Invisibility of the full costs of electricity from non-renewable energy sources (RES-E)
Financial barriers can be caused by the existing national frameworks and vary depending on the Member State’s electricity system. The RESPOND project (2006-2009) claims that the growing amount of RES-E affects the electricity system and can only be efficiently integrated if it leads to economically efficient, market-based responses from different stakeholders. In practice, however, current electricity market regulation does not always give sufficient incentives to market participants for an optimal support of integration of RES-E.
The financial barriers that were identified during the OPTRES stakeholder consultation can be divided into two main categories:
- Lack of certainty among banks or investors
- Capital subsidies and cash flows that are hard to predict
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