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System operation aspects

Transmission level

Balancing and securing system operation by the Transmission System Operator (TSO) involves the use of transmission lines in the system area and the interconnections to neighbouring systems. The issues include congestion management, priority access and priorities in curtailment in critical situations, such as low demand or high winds.

High penetration levels of wind power production affect the operation of the transmission system. Voltage control in the system (for example, near large wind farms) may be required in order to cope with unwanted voltage changes, which might be enhanced by variable output wind power. This voltage support could be supplied by the wind farm, if adequate wind energy technology were to be used; otherwise dedicated equipment would need to be installed, such as FACTS-devices .

Another issue is the management of power flows and possible congestion in the grid. Specific combinations of both the level and geographical location of wind power production and demand can cause changes in the size and direction of power flows in the transmission grid. This results in changing cross-border flows. In order to manage these cross-border power flows TSO’s also need high quality wind forecasting tools. FACTS-devices, as well as phase-shifting transformers, may be used for the management of power flows.

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