Ackermann, T., (2007) Annex to Report of the Grid Connection Inquiry, Grid Issues for Electricity Production Based on Renewable Energy Sources in Spain, Portugal, Germany, and United Kingdom, Stockholm, November 2007


Ackermann, T., (2005) Wind Power in Power Systems, J. Wiley


ADEME (2008) ADEME&Vous, Stratégie & Études. Maîtrise de l’énergie et développement des énergies renouvelables, available at


Algoso, D.; Rusch, E., (2004) Renewables work. Job Growth from Renewable Energy Development in the Mid Atlantic, NJPIRG, Law and Policy Centre


American Wind Energy Association (AWEA) (2008)


American Wind Energy Association (AWEA) (2008) Small Wind Turbines Market Survey 2008, available at


Asociación Empresarial Eólica (AEE) (2007), Todos los datos, análisis y estadísticas del sector eólico, Proceedings, Eólica 07, available at


Auer H., C. Obersteiner, W. Prüggler, L. Weissensteiner, T. Faber, G. Resch (2007) Guiding a Least Cost Grid Integration of RES-Electricity in an extended Europe, Action Plan, Project GreenNet-Europe, Vienna


Awerbuch S., (2003) Determining the real cost - Why renewable power is more cost competitive than previously believed, Renewable Energy World, March-April, 2003


Awerbuch, S., (2003) The true cost of fossil-fired electricity, Power economics, May 2003

Azar C., T. Sterner, (1996) Discounting and Distributional Considerations in the Context of Global Warming, Ecological Economics, Vol. 19 (11), p. 169-184

Baring-Gould, E. I.  (2002) Worldwide status of Wind-Diesel Applications,  Wind-Diesel Workshop report


Barrios, L. and Rodríguez, A. (2004), Behavioural and environmental correlates of soaring – bird mortality at on-shore wind turbines. Journal of Applied Ecology. 41, 72-81


<Bell, D., Gray, T. and Haggett, C. (2005), The “Social Gap” in Wind Farm Siting Decisions: Explanations and Policy Responses, Environmental Politics, vol 14, no 4, pp 460-477

Birdlife (2005), Birds and Habitats Directive Task Force. Position Statement on Wind Farms and Birds, available at


Bishop, I. and Miller, D. (2007) Visual assessment of offshore wind turbines: The influence of distance, contrast, movement and social variable,. Renewable Energy, vol 32, pp 814–831


Bishop, I.D.; Miller, D.R. (2007), Visual assessment of off-shore wind turbines: The influence of distance, contrast, movement and social variables,. Renewable Energy. 32, 814-831


BMU (2002), Vergleich externer Kosten der Stromerzeugung in Bezug auf das Erneuerbare Energien Gesetz, Endbericht, Berlin, 2002


Boesen, C and Kjaer J. (2005) Review report: The Danish Offshore wind farm. Demonstration Projects: Horns Rev and Nysted offshore wind farms. Environmental impact assessment and monitoring, prepared for The Environmental Group by Elsam Engineering and ENERGI E2, 2004


Boston Consulting Group, (2004) Donner un nouveau souffle à l´éolien terrestre, développement de l´éolien terrestre en France, France, June 2004, available at


Böstrom, M. (2003) Environmental Organisations in New Forms of Political Participation: Ecological Modernisation and the Making of Voluntary Rules,  Environmental Values, vol 12, no 2, pp 175-193


Breukers, S. and Wolsink, M. (2007) Wind power implementation in changing institutional landscapes: An international comparison. Energy Policy.,Vol 35, Issue 5, pp 2737-2750


Brusa, A.,  Lanfranconi, C.(2007), Guidelines for realization of wind plants and their integration in the territory


BTM-Consult (2008) World market update 2007, published March 2008


BWEA (2005) Guidelines for Health and Safety in the wind energy industry, ISBN 1 870064 42 9


Capros P., L. Antzos, V. Papandreou, N. Tasios, (2008) European Energy and Transport: Trends to 2030 – Update 2007, Report to the European Commission, ISBN 978-92-79-07620-6, Belgium


Carlman, I. (1982) Wind energy potential in Sweden: the importance of non-technical factors. Fourth International Symposium on Wind Energy Systems, September 21–24, 1982, <Stockholm, pp. 335–348


Carlman, I. (1984) The views of politicians and decision-makers on planning for the use of wind power in Sweden, European Wind Energy Conference, 22–36 October 1984, Hamburg, pp. 339–343


CIEMAT, Small Wind Turbine Database, (in Spanish) available at  (accessed June 2008)


Coenraads, R. Reece, G., Voogt, M., Ragwitz, M., Held, A., Resch, G., Faber, T., Haas, R., Konstantinaviciute, I., Krivošík, J., Chadim, T. (2008) PROGRESS, Promotion and growth of renewable energy sources and systems, <Utrecht, 5 March 2008


Coenraads, R., Voogt, M., and Morotz, A. (2006) Analysis of barriers fro the development of electricity generation from renewable energy sources in the EU-25, OPTRES Report to the European Commission, May 2006


Commission of the European Communities (2004), Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament, The share of renewable energy in the EU, Commission Report in accordance with Article 3 of Directive 2001/77/EC, evaluation of the effect of legislative instruments and other Community policies on the development of the contribution of renewable energy sources in the EU and proposals for concrete actions, SEC(2004) 547}, COM(2004) 366 final, Brussels, 26.5.2004


Commission of the European Communities (2005), Communication from the Commission, The support of electricity from renewable energy sources, {SEC(2005) 1571}, COM(2005) 627 final,


Commission of the European Communities (2001), Directive 2001/77/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 27 September 2001 on the promotion of electricity produced from renewable energy sources in the internal electricity market, Official Journal of the European Communities, L 283/33, 27.10.2001


Commission of the European Communities (2008), Proposal for a Directove of the European Parliament and of the Council on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources, (presented by the Commission), {COM(2008) 30 final}, {SEC(2008) 57}, {SEC(2008) 85}, COM(2008) 19 final, 2008/0016 (COD), Brussels, 23.1.2008


CORDIS, Community Research and , Seventh Framework Programme (FP7,) available at


Council Directive 79/409/EEC of 2 April 1979 on the conservation of wild birds, Official OJ L103/1, 25.4.1979 

Council Directive 92/43/EEC of 21 May 1992 on the conservation of natural habitats and of wild fauna and flora, OJ L 206, 22.7.1992

Cowell, R. (2007) Wind Power and the planning problem: the Experience of Wales, European Environment, vol 17, pp.291-306


Czisch, G. (2001) Global Renewable Energy Potential - Approaches to its Use, Regenerative Energiequellen: Schulung für polnische Führungskräfte, Magdeburg, April/September 2001,


Danish Energy Authority, Windturbines - introduction and basic facts, accessed August 2008,


Danish Wind Industry Association, DWIA Environmental and employment benefits of wind, 2008, available at


De Lucas, M.; Janss, G.F. E. and Ferrer, M. Editors (2007), Birds and Wind Farms. Risk Assessment and Mitigation, Quercus


DEA (2006), Offshore Wind Farms and the Environment. Danish experiences from Horns Rev and Nysted, Danish Energy Authority


DENA, (2005) Planning of the Grid Integration of Wind Energy in    >Germany, Onshore and Offshore up to the year 2020 (dena Grid study), Deutsche Energie-Agentur Dena, March 2005, accessible at


Department for Trade and Industry, Marine Consents and Environment Unit, (2004) Guidance Notes, Offshore Wind Farm Contents Process, London, August 2004,


Desholm, N.; Fox, A.D.; Beasley, P.D.L. & Kahlert, J. (2006), Remote techniques for counting and estimating the number of bird-wind turbine collisions at sea: a review,  British Ornithologist’ Union, Ibis. 148. 76-89


Deutsches Windenergie-Institut Gmbh (Dewi), (2002) Studie zur aktuellen Kostensituation 2002 der Windenergienutzung in Deutschland – draft, July 2002


Devine-Wright, P. & Devine-Wright, H. (2006) Social representations of intermittency and the shaping of public support for wind energy in the UK,, International Journal of Global Energy Issues, vol 25, no 3/4, pp. 243-256


Devine-Wright, P. (2005) Beyond NIMBYism: towards an Integrated Framework for Understanding Public Perceptions of Wind Energy, Wind Energy, vol 8, pp125-139


Dirksen, S., Spaans, A.L. & Widen, J.v.D., (2007) Collision risks for diving ducks at semi-offshore wind farms in freshwater lakes: a case study, in Birds and Wind Farms. Risk Assessment and Mitigation, de Lucas, M., Janss, G. & Ferrer, M. (eds).


DOE/GO-102008-2567 (2008) 20% Wind Energy by 2030.  Increasing Wind Energy’s Contribution to    >U.S. Electricity Supply, available at  (accessed June 2008)


Dowling, P., Hurley, B., (2004) A strategy for locating the least cost wind energy sites within an EU electrical load and grid infrastructure perspective., London, EWEC 2004


Drewitt, A. L.& Langston, R.H.W. (2006). Assessing the impacts of wind farms on birds, British Ornithologist’ Union, Ibis. 148. 29-42


DTI (2002), Wind energy and aviation interest Interim guidelines. Wind energy, defence & civil aviation. Interest working group, DTI, Ministry of Defence, Civil Aviation Authority and BWEA


DTI (2006), The measurement of low frequency noise at three    >UK wind farms, available at


ECON Pöyry – MSC WIND, (2008) A multi-client study – Implication of large-scale wind power in Northern Europe, February 2008


Edge, G.; Blanchard, L. (2007), Delivering Offshore Wind Power in Europe, European Wind Energy Association (EWEA), available at


Ekraft, Eltra, (2004) Wind Turbines connected to Grids with Voltages above 100kV, Technical Regulation for the Properties and the Regulation of Wind Turbines, Denmark, November 2004,


ELINFRASTRUKTURUDVALGET, (2008) Technical report on the future expansion and undergrounding of the electricity transmission grid, Summary, April 2008


Ellis, G., Barry, J., Robinson, C. (2007) Many ways to say “no”, different ways to say “yes”: Applying Q-Methodology to understand public acceptance of wind farm proposals, Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, vol 50, no 4, pp 517-551


Eltham, , Harrison, G.P. and Allena, S.J. (2008) Change in public attitudes towards a Cornish wind farm: Implications for planning, Energy Policy, vol 36, pp 23–33


Energy Economics Group (EEG) (2007) Green-X Data Base


Erickson, W., G. Johnson, and D. Young. (2002). Summary of Anthropogenic Causes of Bird Mortality, Third International Partners in Flight Conference, March 20–24, Asilomar, California, available at Strike Study.pdf


Erlich, I., Winter, W., Dittrich, A., (2006) Advanced Grid Requirements for the Integration of Wind Turbines into the German Transmission System, IEEE PES, Montreal, 2006, available at (subscription req'd.)


Estanqueiro, A., Rui C.,, Flores, P., Ricardo, J., Pinto, M., Rodrigues, R., Peças Lopes, J., (2008) How to prepare a power system for 15% wind energy penetration: the Portuguese case study, Wind Energy, Vol. 11, Nº. 1, pag: 75-84


Eurelectric, (2006) Statistics and Prospects for the European Electricity Sector (1980-1990, 2000-2030) – EURPROG (2006), Eurelectric,


European Commission, (2006) Commission Staff Working Document. Accompanying document to the Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament: Renewable Map: Renewable energies in the 21st century: building a more sustainable future. Impact Assessment, COM (2006) 848 final


European Commission (2007) Communication from the Commission to the Council, the European Parliament, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions – A European Strategic Energy Technology Plan (SET-Plan) COM(2007) 723 final.  


European Commission, DGET (2007), Renewables make the difference, available at http:// –


European Commission (2007) Monitoring industrial research: the 2007 EU industrial R&D investment scoreboard


European Commission, DG-Research (2006) The State and Prospects of European Energy Research Comparison of Commission, Member and Non-Member States - R&D Portfolios


European Commission, (2001) Directive 2001/77/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council on the promotion of electricity produced from renewable energy sources in the internal electricity market, 27 September 2001

European Commission, Directorate for Energy and Transport, Intelligent Energy Europe, Renewable Energy projects - Renewable Electricity,

European Commission, Directorate for Energy and Transport, Intelligent Energy Europe, Project Fact Sheet, Renewable Electricity Supply interactions with conventional Power Generation, Networks and Demand (RESPOND,)


European Commission, (2008) European Energy and Transport. Trends to 2030 – update 2007


European Commission, (2006) European Energy and Transport. Scenarios on energy efficiency and renewables


European Commission,(2003) External costs research results on socio-environmental damages due to electricity and transport external cost, ExternE Project, Brussels


European Commission, (1994) Externalities of Fuel Cycles - ExternE Project, Summary Report, European Commission DG XII, Science Research and Development, JOULE, EUR 16521 EN, Brussels/Luxembourg


European Commission, (1995) Externalities of fuel cycles - ExternE Project, Volume 2: Methodology, European Commission DG XII, Science Research and Development, JOULE, EUR 16521 EN, Brussels/Luxembourg


European Commission, (1995)  Externalities of fuel cycles - ExternE Project, Volume 3: Coal and Lignite, European Commission DG XII, Science Research and Development, JOULE, EUR 16521 EN, Brussels/Luxembourg, 1995


European Commission, Directorate-General for Research, Sustainable Energy Systems (2005) Key Tasks for Future European Energy R&D: A first set of recommendations for research and development by the advisory Group on Energy, EUR 21352


European Commission (2006) Attitudes towards energy, Special Eurobarometer 247 / Wave 64.2


European Commission. (2007), Energy technologies: Knowledge. Perception. Measures Special Eurobarometer 262 / Wave 65.3


European Commission. ExternE: Externalities of Energy - A Research Project of the European Commission, Project Website available at


European Parliament, (2007) Employment potential of renewable forms of energy and increased efficiency of energy use. Briefing note. DG Internal policies of the Union. Policy department: Economic and Scientific Policy. IP/A/EMPL/FWC/2006-03/SC3,EP, 2007


European Renewable Energy Council, (2007) New renewable energy target for 2020 – a Renewable Energy Roadmap for the EU. Published by EREC,

European Wind Energy Association (EWEA), (2003) Survey for Wind Energy –The Facts, <Brussels


European Wind Energy Association, (2005) Prioritising Wind Energy Research – Strategic Research Agenda of the Wind Energy Sector,


European Wind Energy Association (EWEA), (2005)  Large-scale integration of wind energy in the European power supply: analysis, issues and recommendations,


European Wind Energy Association (EWEA), (2005) Wind Force, 12. A blueprint to achieve 12% of the world’s electricity from wind power by 2020, EWEA and Greenpeace, available at


European Wind Energy Association (EWEA), (2006) Focus on 2030. EWEA aims for 22% of Europe’s electricity by 2030, Wind Directions,


European Wind Energy Association, Briefing (2006), No Fuel. Wind  power without fuel, available at.


European Wind Energy Association (EWEA), (2007) internal Paper, Administrative and Grid Barriers, July 2007


European Wind Energy Association (EWEA) (2008), Pure Power – Wind Energy Scenarios up to 2030, Final Report, <Brussels, March 2008accessible at


European Wind Energy Association (EWEA), (2008) The employment report, Internal document. EWEA


European Wind Energy Technology Platform (2008) Strategic Research Agenda, Market Deployment Strategy, from 2008 to 2030, Brussels, available at


Eurostat, Official 2006 Eurostat Statistics of the European Commission, EU in Figures: Pocket Book 2007/2008; available online at DG TREN Website of the European Commission:


Eurostat, (2008) Statistical Office of the European Communities, Job vacancy statistics. Annual data


Eurostat, (2007) Statistical Office of the European Communities, Labour market: Structural Indicators, available at:


Eurostat, Statistical Office of the European Communities (2008) The life of men and women in Europe. Statistical Portrait


Exo, K.M.; Hüppop, O.; Garthe, S. (2003) Birds and offshore wind farms: a hot topic in marine ecology, Wader Study Group Bulletin. 100. pp 50-53


ExternE-Pol, (2005) Externalities of Energy - Extension of accounting framework and policy applications, Report to the European Commission (DG RTD), Contract No: ENG1-CT2002-00609, Coordination: ARMINES/Ecole des Mines de Paris


Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety, (2008) Kurz – und langfristige Auswirkungen des Ausbaus der erneuerbaren Energien auf den deutschen Arbeitsmarkt, Interim report, BMU


Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (2006) Renewable Energy: Employment Effects. Impact of the expansion of renewable energy on the German labour market, BMU, available at:


Firestone, J., Kempton, W. (2007) Public opinion about large offshore wind power: Underlying factors, Energy Policy, vol 35, pp 1584-1598


Forsyth, T. and Baring-Gould, I. (2007) Distributed Wind Market Applications, NREL

Gipe, P. (2004) Wind Power, James & James


Fox A.D., Desholm M., Kahler J.,. Christensen T. K., Petersen I. K. (2006), Information needs to support environmental impact assessment of the effects of European marine offshore wind farms on birds, Ibis, 148, pp 129–144


Friedrich et al., Externen Kosten der Stromerzeugung, Universität Flensburg, 1989

García, L (2007), Onshore wind and environmental impact requirements: The experience of ACCIONA, European Wind Energy Conference EWEC 2007,


Giebel, G., (2005) Wind Power has a Capacity Credit - A Catalogue of 50+ Supporting Studies, WindEng EJournal, accessible at


Gill, A.B. (2005), Offshore renewable energy: ecological implications of generating electricity in the coastal zone, Journal of Applied Ecology. 42. pp 605-615


Gipe, P., (2004) Wind Power, James & James


Global Wind Energy Council (2008), Global Wind 2007 Report,Brussels, pp 11-14


Global Wind Energy Council/Greenpeace (2008), Global Wind Energy Outlook 2008,


Greenpeace (2005), Offshore Wind. Implementing a New Powerhouse for Europe, Grid Connection, Environmental Impact & Political Framework, <Brussels


Gross, C. (2007) Community perspectives of wind energy in    >Australia: The application of a justice and community fairness framework to increase social acceptance, Energy Policy, vol 35, pp 2727-2736


Hecklau, J. (2005), Visual Characteristics of Wind Turbines, proceedings of NWCC Technical Considerations in Siting Wind Developments, available at

Held, Anne, PROGRESS, Identification of administrative and grid barriers to the promotion of electricity from renewable energy sources (RES), 25 February 2008


Hepburn, H and Edworthy, J. (2005), Infrasound from wind turbine: Observations from Castle River wind farm, Canadian Wind Energy Conference. Toronto, Canada


Hohmeyer et al. (eds), (2000) Chance Automausstieg - Perspektiven für neue Arbeitsplätze an Atomstandorten, Report Greenpeace, Hamburg,


Hohmeyer et al. (eds), (1996) Social costs and sustainability, Heidelberg, Springer Verlag Berlin


Hohmeyer O., (1996) Social costs of climate change, strong sustainability and social costs, in: Hohmeyer O. et al. (1996)  Social costs and sustainability, Heidelberg, Spring Verlag Berlin,


Holttinen, H, (2004) The impact of large scale wind power production on the Nordic electricity system, VTT Publications 554.


Holttinen, H., (2007) State of the Art IEA Task 25 Report: Design and operation of power systems with large amounts of wind power


Horlick-Jones, T., Walls, J., Rowe, G., Pidgeon, N., Poortinga, W., Murdock, G. and O’Riordan, T. (2007) The GM Debate: Risk, Politics and Public Engagement, Routledge, London


Howard, M and Brown, C. (2004), Results of the electromagnetic investigations and assessments of marine radar, communications and positioning systems undertaken at the North Hoyle wind farm, QinetiQ and the Maritime and Coastguard Agency


Hunt, G. (1998), Raptor floaters at Moffat’s equilibrium, Oikos 82(1), pp 191-197


Hüppop, O.; Dierschke, J.; Exo, K.M.; Fredrich, E. & Hill, R. (2006), Bird migration studies and potential collision risk with offshore wind turbines, British Ornithologist’ Union, Ibis. 148. pp 90-109


IDEA, (2005) Plan de Energías Renovables en España 2005-2010, 9704420F5E9F/0/ResumenPlanEnergiasRenov.pdf, Spain, June 2005


IEA, Energy R&D Statistics Database, available at


IEA (1999, second print 2003) Expert study group on recommended practices for wind turbine testing and evaluation, Part XI, Wind speed measurement and use of cup anemometry


IEA (1999) Annex XI, IEC 6-1400 Part 12, available at


IEA (2005), Offshore Wind Experiences, available at


IEA (2005) Annex XI, IEC 6-1400 Part 12, available at


IEA (2006) Annual report 2006, Paris


IEA Wind (2007), Implementing Agreement for Cooperation in the Research, Development, and Deployment of Wind Energy Systems: Proposal for a new task. Social Acceptance of Wind Energy Projects: Winning Hearts and Minds. October, 2007.


IEA (2007) Wind Energy, Annual Report, July 2007


IEA (2007) World Energy Outlook, Paris


IEA (2008) Recabs-model, developed in the IEA Implementing Agreement on Renewable Energy Technology Deployment,


IEC 61400-11 (2003) Wind turbine generator systems. Part 11 Acoustic noise measurement techniques


IEC 61400-12:1 (2005) Wind turbines - Part 12-1: Power performance measurements of electricity producing wind turbines


IEC 61400-2 (2006) Design Requirements for Small Wind Turbines


IEC 61400-21, (2008) Wind turbine generator systems - Part 21: Measurement and assessment of power quality characteristics of grid connected wind turbines, Ed. 2.0, FDIS


IFC (2007), Environmental, health and safety guidelines for wind energy, International Finance Corporation


ISET, (2004) Wind Energy Report Germany 2004, Kassel


ISO (1996) Acoustics — Attenuation of sound during propagation outdoors — Part 2: General method of calculation ISO 9613 part 2


Jacobsen, J (2005), Infrasound Emission from Wind Turbines, Journal of Low Frequency Noise, Vibration and Active Control.  24.(3). pp 145 – 155


Jensen, P.H.; Morthorst, P.E.; Skriver, S.; Rasmussen, M. et al, (2002) Economics of  Wind Turbines in Denmark – Investment and Operation and Maintenance costs for selected generations of turbines, Risø, Denmark


Jobert, A., Laborgne, P., Mimler, S. (2007) Local acceptance of wind energy: Factors of success identified in French and German case studies, Energy Policy, vol 35, pp 2751-2760


Johansson, M. and Laike, T. (2007) Intention to respond to local wind turbines: the role of attitudes and visual perception, Wind Energy, vol 10, no 5, pp 435-451


Jones C., (2005) Applied Welfare Economics, Print ISBN-13: 978-0-19-928197-8, The Australian National University


Kammen, D.; Kapadia, K.; Fripp, M., (2004) Putting Renewables to Work: How many jobs can the clean industry generate? Renewable and Appropriate Energy Laboratory report, University of ,


Kempton W, Firestone J, Lilley J, Rouleau T, Whitaker P. (2005) The off-shore wind power debate. Views from Cape Cod, Coastal Management, vol 33, pp 119-149


Köller, J.; Köppel, J.; Peters, W. Editors. (2006), Offshore Wind Energy. Research on Environmental Impacts, Berlin, Germany


Krohn, S. and Damborg, S. (1999) On Public Attitudes Towards Wind Power. Renewable Energy, vol 16, pp 954-960


Kuehn, S. (2005) Sociological investigation of the reception of Horns Rev and Nysted Offshore wind farms in the local communities. ECON Analyse, March 2005


Kulisik, Bl; Loizou, E.; Rozakis, S.; Segon, V., (2007) Impacts of biodiesel production on Croatian Economy. In Energy Policy, 35, pp. 6036-6045


Kunreuther, H., Slovic, P. and MacGregor, D. (1996) Risk Perception and Trust:Challenges for Facility Siting. Risk: Health, Safety and the Environment, vol 7, pp 109-118


  Sitemap | Partners | Disclaimer | Contact

coordinated by


supported by

Intelligent Energy Europ

The sole responsibility for the content of this webpage lies with the authors. It does not necessarily reflect the opinion of the European Communities. The European Commission is not responsible for any use that maybe made of the information contained therein.